Bibliography | Biology homework help

All students, regardless of project type, should submit an annotated bibliography, in either APA or CSE (Name-Date) citation style, that reflects their individual research efforts into the topic of choice for their project.

Collaborators should submit their own reference lists that are different from each other. The minimum number of references is 5. (Not all the references investigated for the topic and listed in the annotated bibliographies will be used in constructing posters. They usually have 6-10 references maximum.)

What is an annotated bibliography?

An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief descriptive and evaluative paragraph.

What you should have in your annotated bibliography:

A. The citations in alphabetical order by first author’s last name, in correct full APA or CSE style. It is different for each different type of source. Be sure to list all authors unless more then 7, then follow rules for style.

B. Identify what type of source it is: primary research article in scientific journal, review article, news article, book, web source (.org, .edu, .gov).

Must have a minimum of 5 sources, at least 3 of which must be published peer-reviewed primary author scientific papers (not review articles; No blogs or wikis!)

C. Briefly describe (75-100 words) what the article is about, summarizing, in your own words, the information that is relevant to your topic. Do NOT simply copy from the abstract or introduction.

Upload your typed (12 font minimum) annotated bibliography as a word doc here.

Info on CSE Style:  M15_csecitationstyle.pdf


Examples of how to cite in APA style:

1A. Cooper, K.L., Tabin, C.J. (2008) Understanding of bat wing evolution takes flight. Genes & Dev. 22:121-124. doi:10.1101/gad.1639108.

B. News article in scientific journal.

C. The authors summarize and discuss a primary research paper by Cretekos et al. (2008). The paper provides evidence linking a specific gene Prx1 (paired-box homeodomain transcription factor) to the development of longer finger bones in mouse-like bat ancestors. When they inserted the Prx1 gene into modern mice, they found a significant increase in the length of limb bones. They suggest that this gene may regulate the expression of another gene Bmp (bone morphogenic protein), which is known to be important in stimulating bone growth.

2A. Evans, P.D., Mekel-Bobrov, N., Vallender, E.J., Hudson, R.R., Lahn, B.T. (2006) Evidence that the adaptive allele of the brain size gene microcephalin introgressed into Homo sapiens from an archaic Homo lineage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 103(48):18178-18183. doi:10.1073/pnas.0606966103

B. Primary research article in scientific journal.

C. In this paper, the authors sought to establish evidence of crossbreeding (admixture) between ancient human species. They used a mathematical model, called an “interhaplogroup divergence test”, to analyze variants of the microcephalin gene (MCPH1) in modern humans. [A haplogroup is a genetically related population that share a common maternal or paternal ancestor.] The microcephalin gene is important for determining brain size during development. The variant microcephalin haplogroup D appeared in Homo sapiens only about 37,000 years ago (whereas other haplogroups of this gene are about 1 million years old), but is now present in 70% of modern humans. Their analysis showed that (1) this was most likely due to crossbreeding with another Homo species, most likely Neanderthals, and (2) the mutation conferred a selective advantage over other haplogroups, which led to its rapid spread through the population.

3A. Understanding Evolution: The evolution of whales. (n.d.) University of California Museum of Paleontology. Retrieved on 02/11/2016 from:

B. Article from Website

C. This article gives an overview of whale evolution with specific examples of physical features in related species that demonstrate intermediate phenotypes between ancestral and modern whales. There are also very good diagrams that illustrate the examples. This website is a great resource for information on evolution in general and many different species.

4A. van’t Hof, A.E., Edmonds, N., Dalíková, M., Marec, F., Saccheri, I.J. (2011) Industrial melanism in British peppered moths has a singular and recent mutational origin. Science. 332(6032):958-960. doi:10.1126/science.1203043

B. Primary research article in scientific journal.

C. This study investigated the underlying genetic basis for the black-colored (carbonaria) form of the wild-type light-colored peppered moth. The authors mapped a 200 kilobase (=200,000 base pairs) region of the moth genome that has been shown to be associated with wing color patterns in other moth species. They found only one major variation in the DNA sequence which suggests that this mutation has occurred very recently.

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