Bio exam – immune system

Nuclear transcription factor activated by cytokine response to produce inflammatory cytokines.
 
Key complement product that specifically tags pathogens for destruction
 
Pore produced by assembly of CD9 proteins as directed by C5b, C6, C7 and C8.
 
Cell adhesion molecules required for neutrophil “homing”.
 
Human cell surface protein that prevents the MAC complex from assembling into a pore.
 
Found on the cell surface of grfam negative bacteria, these potent markers activate TLRs.
 
“Bad” microbial species that usually do not cause disease in healty individuals.
 
Receptors that sense infection, these are primarily in the innate immune system, but also in adaptive immunity.
 
“Good” microbial species that inhabig adult gut
(Are you a good witch or a bad witch??)
 
Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue–secondary lympoid tissue
 
Acronym for the protein involved in the innate immune response, C-Reactive Protein.
 
Anti-microbial proteins
  1. Commensual species
2. Opportunistic pathogens
3. Defensins
4. GALT
5. C3b
6. CD59
7. MAC
8. TLRs
9. LPS
10. NFkappaB
11. LFA-1:ICAM-1
12. CRP

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Question 3 (20 points)
 
Match genes, terms, proteins for chapters 3 and 4.  You may use your note cards and my lecture notes for this question.  Only one choice per match.
Question 3 options:
 
Key genes for somatic recombination, these are transcribed only in lymphocytes.
 
Palindromic and Nontemplated–these nucleotides fill in randomly to create more diversity in CDR3
 
Adaptive response that follows if pathogen breaches skin, provides a first exposure to an antigen–this response takes some time.
 
Process that increases numbers of B and T cells that recognize a specific pathogen
 
Adaptive response that follows if the antigen has been previously seen–this response is fast.
 
Process of enhanced diversification of V-Domain coding sequences–occurs after initial B cell activation.
 
Process of cutting, splicing and random recombination that produces diversity for antigen recognition.
 
The shape recognized by an antibody, this is also the shape that leads to the MHC presentation for T cell receptors.
 
Key function of certain antibodies and complement components to coat pathogens and thus inactivate them.
 
Stage in T-Cell development where T cells that recognize self are targeted for Apoptosis.
 
Hypervariable loop key for recognizing antigens.
 
Process where antibody can be modified (not antigen binding region) to produce alternative effector functions.
  1. Primary Immune Response
2. Secondary Immune Response
3. Clonal Selection
4. Negative Selection
5. CDR3
6. Epitope
7. Somatic Recombination
8. RAG
9. P and N Nucleotides
10. Isotype Switching
11. Somatic Hypermutation
12. Opsins/Opsinization

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Question 4 (20 points)
 
Match terms, genes and proteins for chapters 5 and 8.  Only one choice per match.  Note cards and my lecture notes ok!
Question 4 options:
 
Master Professional Antigen Presenting Cell
(white gloves and all)
 
Cell surface molecules from professional antigen presentiing cell that interact with T cells.
 
This T-cell receptor binds the B7 ligand.
 
Lingand (related to immunoglobulin family) that binds the CD28 co-receptor.  This ligand is found on antigen presenting cells and indicates a positive infection.
 
This cell signaling molecule transduced the T-cell activation initiated by antigen presenting by way of phosphorylation.
 
Antigen processing components used for MHC-1 presentation; Antigen processing components used for MHC–II presentation.
 
Nucleotide sequences recognized by RAG genes for somatic recombination; Key genes, ony expressed in B and T cells that are thought to have evolved from transposons.
 
HLA isotypes with the greatest extent of polymorphism.
 
Proteins produced by different forms of a given gene; Where muliple alternative forms of a gene exist in a given population.
 
Co-receptor for helper T cells; Co-receptor for cytotoxic T cells.
 
Antigen presentation that indicates intracellular pathogen; Antigen presentation that indicates extracellular pathogen.
 
Where a T-cell receptor is specific to a complex of both the MHC and antigen presentation for activation.
  1. RSS; RAG 1 and 2
2. CD4; CD8
3. MHC-I; MHC-II
4. Proteasome, TAP, ERAP, Calnexin; Invariant chain, CLIP
5. Allotype; Genetic polymorphism
6. MHC Restriction
7. HLA-1A, HLA 1B, HLA-1C
8. Dendritic Cell
9. LFA-1:ICAM-2, CD2:LFA-3
10. B7
11. Zap 70
12. CD28

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Question 5 (4 points)
 
Please see Figure 2.20 (shown on slide 11 of chapter 2 lecture notes).  This figure shows the Toll-like receptors.  They are highlighted on the opening video for this chapter!  Which of the following are true for these key components of the Innate Immune system?
Question 5 options:
 
These receptors are signaling molecules.  The family members are specific for different microbes.  Our text describes at least 9 different TLRs in this family that provide detection of specific microorganisms.
 
When activated, these TLRs will activate cell signaling processes that lead to cytokine responses.  For example, when LPS is recognized by TLR4, a kinase cascade results in the nuclear localization of a key transcription factor (NFkappa Beta) that will activate the transcription of inflammatory cytokines.
 
Toll Like Receptors only sense microbes on  the outer surfaces of cells.
 
1 and 2
 
2 and 3
 
All answers are correct
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Question 6 (4 points)
 
Please see Figures 3.8 and 3.9 from our text.  These are shown on slide 8 of the Chapter 2 lecture.  These two classes of antigen-presenting molecules are critical for our well-being and the stars of our Davis novel. In fact, our text states that MHC genes are “the best-known examples of highly polymorphic genes”. Which of the following statements are true for these key molecules?
Question 6 options:
 
MHC Class I molecules present to CD8 T cells and in addition to binding the T cell receptor, these bind the CD8 co-receptor.  CD8 T cells are cytotoxic T cells.
 
MHC Class II molecules present to CD4 T cells and in addition to binding the T cell receptor, these bind the CD4 co-receptor.  CD4 cells are helper T cells.
 
MHC Class I molecules present antigens from intracellular pathogens (viruses for example) while MHC Class II molecules present antigens from extracellular pathogens (bacterial, viral, fungal and even parasites).
 
MHC class I molecules are expressed by all cells (except for Red Blood Cells) in the body, while MHC class II molecules are only expressed on dendritic cells,  macrophages and B cells.
 
1, 2 and 3
 
All answers are correct.
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Question 7 (4 points)
 
Our text states that “The number of different antibodies that can be produced by the human body seem to be virtually limitless”.  Key to creating the diversity witin the antigen binding sites (Slide 7 of chapter 4 lecture) are the result of random recombination of gene segments.  The RAG genes are key for creating this process.  Please see Slide 15 from the chapter 4 lecture that shows Figures 4.19-4.21.  The RAG story lecture elaborates on these genes and this process.  Please select the statement that is NOT true about RAG Genes and random recomination.
Question 7 options:
 
Somatic recombination occurs during B cell development.  During this process, the V, D and J segments are cut and spliced and help produce the great variety of antigen binding sites.
 
Variable region sequences are flanked by RSSs, these signal sequences are recognized by the RAG genes.
 
Junctional diversity is created by exchanging V regions for J regions.
 
Junctional diversity is created by having random N- nucleotides added after RAG genes clip RSSs generating P-nucleotides.
 
RAG genes are thought to have evolved from transposons.
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Question 8 (4 points)
 
Please see Figure 5.20.  This is shown on slide 16 of the chapter 5 lecture notes.  Please select the statement(s) that correctly describe the difference between MHC class I and MHC class II antigen processing.
Question 8 options:
 
There is no difference in how antigen processing occurs for MHC class I and MHC class II molecules.
 
As MHC class I molecules present antigens exclusively from extracellular pathogens, the extracellular antigens are engulfed and form an endocytic vesicle.  Peptides are then processed using phagocytosis, and are bound by MHC molecules.
 
As MHC class II molecules present antigens exclusively from intracellular pathogens, the intracellular antigens are processed in a proteasome.  Peptides are then transported from the proteasome through TAP to the ER lumen where they are loaded onto the MHC molecule.
 
Answers 2 and 3 WOULD be correct if the MHC class type were switched.  Specifically, answer 3 would be correct if MHC class I molecules were identified, and answer 2 would be correct if MHC class II molecules were identified.
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Question 9 (4 points)
 
Please see the summary slide for our chapter 8 lecture.  This slide shows Figure 8.39 from our text.  Please select the correct statement(s) for this question on the stages of the T cell response.
Question 9 options:
 
Naive T cells must be activated in order to become effector T cells.  Specifically, Naive CD8 T cells recognize the antigen presented by MHC class II molecules and will then develop into helper T cells.
 
Naive T cells must be activated in order to become effector T cells.  Specifically, Naive CD8 T cells recognize the antigen presented by MHC class I molecules and will then develop into cytotoxic T cells.
 
Cytotoxic T cells recognize cells that have been infected (viral) and kill them via Apoptosis.
Helper T cells exist in two forms; TH1 cells recognize macrophages that contain vesicles of bacteria and activate the macrophages to kill the bacteria, while TH2 cells activate B cells that will develop in to plamsa cells for antibody production.
 
Answers 1 and 3 are correct
 
Answers 2 and 3 are correct
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